Asylum: This denotes the protection that the authorities usually offer to people who have a well-founded fear of persecution based on race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership in a particular social group. The authorities typically offer asylum to individuals who are at risk of torture or cruel and unusual treatment or punishment as well.
Authorised Representative (or Representative or Designated Representative or Accredited Citizenship or Immigration Consultant): There are typically two kinds of authorised representatives i.e. compensated and uncompensated.
- Compensated Authorised Representatives: These individuals usually receive some form of compensation for their services – either directly or indirectly. Compensated Authorised Representatives would need to be members in good standing with their accredited regulatory bodies.
- Uncompensated Authorised Representatives: These individuals usually provide their services for free. Examples of uncompensated authorised representatives could include friends, family members and volunteers or staff members at charitable or non-governmental organisations (NGOs).
For more details, refer to the definitions of the terms ‘Citizenship and Immigration Consultant’ and ‘Representative’.
Background Check: This refers to a procedure used for verifying the criminal, medical and / or security backgrounds of visa applicants to ensure that they are admissible to Canada. For more details, refer to the definitions of the terms ‘Medical Examination’ and ‘Police Certificate’.
Biometric Instruction Letter: In case applicants need to give their biometrics, Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) would notify them by sending them a biometric instruction letter. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) would usually send this letter either by mail or via the applicants’ MyCIC account at the time of application. Applicants would need to bring paper copies of this letter with them when they visit the Visa Application Centre (VAC) or the Application Support Centre (ASC) in person for giving their biometrics. The letter will typically contain bar codes. The officers in the Visa Application Centre (VAC) or the Application Support Centre (ASC) would need to scan these bar codes before applicants commence giving their biometrics.
Border Services Officer: This refers to officers of the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA). The Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) is a federal government agency. Officers of this agency have the legal authority to determine which people can enter and remain in Canada. These officers usually have many of the same powers given to police officers. As such, they have the right to conduct searches, make arrests and seize documents or goods.
Bridging Program: This denotes a program that helps trained workers to address the gap between the knowledge and experience that they have vis-à-vis what they require for working in their preferred jobs or fields.
British Subject Status (or British Subject): Prior to 1947, people born or naturalised in Canada had the status of British subjects. British subject status is relevant in determining Canadian citizenship under the provisions specified in the 1947 Canadian Citizenship Act. For more details, refer to the definitions of the term ‘Naturalisation’.
Business: This denotes a private sector enterprise that remains engaged in the pursuit of profit.
Business Class (or Business Immigrant): This refers to a category that typically comprises investors, entrepreneurs and self-employed individuals. Applicants have the ability to become permanent residents in this category. However, for this, they would need to possess the ability to establish themselves economically in Canada. The authorities include the applicant’s spouse or common-law partner and the applicant’s dependent children in this category as well.
Business Experience: This is a term that the authorities typically use for people applying to immigrate as entrepreneurs. It describes:
- At least two one-year period of experience in the period from five years prior to the application date to the day the authorities make a decision on the application
The authorities only consider business experience as long as it involves managing and controlling a percentage of equity in a qualifying business.
Similarly, the authorities use the term ‘Business Experience’ for people applying to immigrate as investors as well. In this scenario, the term denotes as least two one-year periods of experience in the period from five years prior to the application date to the day the authorities make a decision on the application. It is worth mentioning that the authorities only consider business experience for investors as long as it involves:
- Managing and controlling a percentage of equity in a qualifying business or,
- Experience in managing at least five full-time job equivalents per year in a business or,
- A combination of one year spent in managing and controlling a percentage of equity in a qualifying business and one year of experience in managing at least five full-time job equivalents in a business
Business Visitor (or Business Traveller): This refers to a person who:
- Comes to Canada for taking part in international business or trade activities
- Has no intention of entering the Canadian labour market and,
- Works for and receives payment from a company outside Canada or by a foreign government
Canadian Business: This denotes an organisation that:
- Is incorporated under Canadian or provincial law and has an ongoing operation in Canada or,
- Has an ongoing operation in Canada that can generate revenue, is run for profit and has a majority of voting or ownership interests held by Canadian citizens, permanent residents or Canadian businesses or,
- Came into emergence by the laws of Canada or a province
Canadian Citizen: The authorities use this term for describing a citizen under the provisions specified in the Citizenship Act. As such, this term denotes a person who:
- Is Canadian by birth
- As such, the person was either born in Canada or born outside Canada to a Canadian citizen who in turn, was either born in Canada or granted citizenship) or,
- Has applied for a grant of citizenship and has received Canadian citizenship i.e. naturalisation
Canadian Experience Class (CEC): This refers to an immigration category. This category enables foreign workers or recently graduated international students working in Canada to apply for permanent residence.