Each Canadian province and the three territories have their own Provincial Nominee Programs (PNPs), in order to serve their individual immigration needs. Many of them also run their own categories under the Canada Express Entry System. As a result, the provinces have an increasing role in the selection of economic immigrants.
Applying for admission to Canada as a permanent resident under a provincial program follows a two-stage process. Applicants who receive a PNP nomination can then apply for permanent residence.
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In some instances, candidates who do not qualify under one of the federal programs may qualify for admission to Canada under a PNP. Some candidates may also qualify for a temporary work permit in the interim, allowing for early entry to Canada for the applicant and their accompanying dependants.
Under the federal 2017 immigration numbers plan, 51,000 newcomers will be welcomed through provincial programs. The target for 2018 is 55,000, rising to nearly 68,000 by 2020.
However, many of the large provincial programs face problems with processing delays. Canada attracts considerable interest from potential new immigrants, far surpassing the processing capacity of immigration programs.
The Canada Express Entry system has successfully tackled processing delays, while many of the provinces are now choosing to open and close their popular streams periodically throughout the year to avoid large backlogs.
Provincial Nominee Program
|British Columbia||Manitoba||New Brunswick||Newfoundland and Labrador|
|Alberta||Ontario||Nova Scotia||Northwest Territories|
|Saskatchewan||Quebec||Prince Edward Island||Yukon|
Under the provincial programs, candidates are nominated by a prospective employer and, once approved by the province, are subject to an expedited process. In the initial stages, applicants can receive temporary, renewable work permits to enter Canada while they are being processed for permanent residence.
The skilled worker-based provincial programs, with the exception of Quebec, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, generally require an employer to sponsor the applicant for admission to Canada. Without a government-approved employer sponsorship, the application will either not be approved, or will be routinely passed over in favour of applications with an employer sponsored approval.
Sponsoring employers under most provincial programs must demonstrate sufficient efforts to hire local Canadians and offer competitive terms and conditions of employment that are relevant to a particular occupation. Between provinces, variations exist in the terms and conditions of employment to qualify to sponsor a foreign worker.
To qualify as a sponsored employee, the position being filled must generally conform to a National Occupation Classification skill level of O, A, B; or alternatively, must meet the terms of a particular pilot project designed for a specific critical skill shortage identified by the province.
Pilot programs within the provinces are designed for low skilled workers and are limited in scope. Most of the provinces have variations of pilot projects for low skilled occupations.
The Economic Class comprises of professionals and skilled workers under the federal skilled worker program,federal skilled trades, the Canadian experience class, the provincial nominee class and the Quebec skilled worker class. The Economic Class also includes business, investment-based programs.
IRCC manages skilled worker, economic class immigration programs using the Express Entry system. Applicants who meet basic criteria, submit an online profile to the express entry pool known as an expression of interest, under one of the above 3 federal Canada immigration programs or a participating provincial immigration program.
The profiles of candidates in the pool are ranked against each other, under a Comprehensive Ranking System. The highest ranked candidates will be considered for an invitation to apply for permanent residence under regular draws. Candidates who receive an invitation to apply, must quickly submit a full application, within a delay of 90-days. The government aims to process cases in only 6-months.
Business immigration programs offering permanent admission to Canada comprise of the Quebec Immigrant Investor Program (QIIP), Quebec Entrepreneur program, Quebec Self-Employed, several Provincial Nominee Entrepreneur programs, the Federal Immigrant Investor Venture Capital (IIVC) Pilot Program and the Federal Start-Up Visa program.
The Provincial Nominee Entrepreneur programs and self-employed programs are aimed at individuals with a mid-range personal net worth who intend to establish and operate a business in Canada. The Quebec Immigrant Investor Program (QIIP) and Federal Immigrant Investor Venture Capital (IIVC) Pilot Program are suited for high net worth individuals who wish to make a passive investment with no obligation to establish a business.
Wealthy business immigrants may also buy or establish a new business in Canada and qualify for a temporary work visa, under federal ‘owner-operator’ policies. After a period of time, qualified applicants may submit an application for permanent residence under a provincial nominee class program, or under the express entry system.
Under the federal family class, current sponsorship policies promote the reunion in Canada of Canadian citizens and permanent residents with their close relatives including a spouse, common-law partner or conjugal partner 16 years of age or older, an unmarried dependent child under the age of 22, a parent or grandparent, and a brother, sister, nephew, niece, grandchild who is an orphan, unmarried and under 18 years of age or any other relative where the sponsor has none of the above relatives or family members, in Canada or abroad.
Canadians may also sponsor parents and grandparents for permanent residents through an annual lottery process. Candidates who are not selected can apply for a long-term visitor Parents and Grandparents Super Visa.
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